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Kauaʻi

Satellite image of the island of Kauai

Landsat satellite image from NASA

Overview

Geologically the oldest of the main eight Hawaiian Islands, the northernmost island of Kauaʻi has a total area of 142 sq km (552 sq mi). This island receives the most rainfall of the main eight Hawaiian Islands, thus giving its nickname of the Garden Isle. Kauaʻi is surrounded on all sides by a fringing reef, with a reef flat sometimes as wide as 1 km (0.6 mi). The reef is under the influence of high wave energy due to the island's geographic position.

Motivation

In June 2005 the USGS began a partnership with the Hanalei Watershed Hui. In 1998 the Hanalei River was designated as an American Heritage River in order to foster cooperative, community-based efforts for the preservation of the surrounding environment. The Hanalei River Valley is home to numerous taro farms and water quality and useage for irrigation are of concern. In an effort to halt flooding, levees were built along portions of the river, thus leading to increased discharge into Hanalei Bay during storm events. We are working on identifying circulation patterns and a sediment budget for Hanalei Bay to help determine any effects to the coastal marine ecosystem including coral reefs.

Other partners working in the Hanalei watershed area include the University of Hawaiʻi, the State of Hawaiʻi (Department of Health, Department of Land and Natural Resources), and Federal organizations (U.S. Department of Agriculture/Natural Resources Conservation Service, Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency). Their sum total have contributed markedly to our understanding of processes in the watershed.

Products

Divided by theme (Note: some products are listed multiple times as they cross multiple themes)

Mapping

U.S. Geological Survey, 2009, Science-based strategies for sustaining coral ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3089, 4 p.

Brown, E.K., Cox, E., Jokiel, P.L., Rogers, S.K., Smith, W.R., Tissot, B., Coles, S.L., and Hultquist, J., 2004, Development of benthic sampling methods for the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) in Hawaiʻi: Pacific Science, v. 58, no. 2, p. 145–158, doi:10.1353/psc.2004.0013.

Jokiel, P.L., Brown, E.K., Friedlander, A., Rodgers, S.K., and Smith, W.R., 2004, Hawaiʻi Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program; Spatial patterns and temporal dynamics in reef coral communities: Pacific Science, v. 58, no. 2, p. 159–174, doi:10.1353/psc.2004.0018.

Circulation and sediment dynamics

Ferrario, F., Beck, M.W., Storlazzi, C.D., Micheli, F., Shepard, C.C., and Airoldi, L., 2014, The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation: Nature Communications, 5:3794, doi:10.1038/ncomms4794. [download PDF]

Field, M.E., Chezar, H., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2012, SedPods—A low-cost coral proxy for measuring net sedimentation: Coral Reefs, v.32, p. 155–159, doi:10.1007/s00338-012-0953-5.

Hoeke, R.K., Storlazzi, C.D., and Ridd, P.V., 2011, Hydrodynamics of a bathymetrically complex fringing coral reef embayment; wave climate, in situ observations and wave prediction: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, v. 116, C04018, p. 19., doi:10.1029/2010JC006170.

Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E, and Bothner, M.H., 2011, The use (and misuse) of sediment traps in coral reef environments; Theory, observations, and suggested protocols: Coral Reefs, v. 30, no. 1, p. 23–38, doi:10.1007/s00338-010-0705-3.

Draut, A.E., Bothner, M.H., Field, M.E., Reynolds, R.L., Cochran, S.A., Logan, J.B., Storlazzi, C.D., and Berg, C.J., 2009, Supply and dispersal of flood sediment from a steep, tropical watershed; Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi, USA: GSA Bulletin, v. 121, no. 3–4, p. 574–585, doi:10.1130/B26367.1.

Storlazzi, C.D., Field, M.E., Bothner, M.H., Presto, M.K., and Draut, A.E., 2009, Sedimentation processes in a coral reef embayment; Hanalei Bay, Kauai: Marine Geology, v. 264, no. 3–4, p. 140–151, doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2009.05.002.

Takesue, R.K., Bothner, M.H., and Reynolds, R.L., 2009, Sources of land-derived runoff to a coral reef-fringed embayment identified using geochemical tracers in nearshore sediment traps, Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 85, no. 3, p. 459–471, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2009.09.014.

Fletcher, C.H., Bochicchio, C., Conger, C.L., Engels, M.S., Feirstein, E.J., Frazer, L.N., Glenn, C.R., Grigg, R.W., Grossman, E.E., Harney, J.N., Isoun, E., Murray-Wallace, C.V., Rooney, J.J., Rubin, K.H., Sherman, C.E., and Vitousek, S., 2008, Geology of Hawaiʻi reefs, in Riegl, B., and Dodge, R., eds., Coral Reefs of the U.S.A., Springer-Verlag, p. 435–488.

Field, M.E., 2005, Living with change; Response of the seafloor to natural events, in Barnes, P.W., and Thomas, J.P., eds., Benthic habitats and the effects of fishing; American Fisheries Society Symposium 41, Proceedings of Symposium on effects of fishing activities on benthic habitats; Linking geology, biology, socioeconomics, and management, Tampa, FL, 12–14 November 2002: Bethesda, MD, American Fisheries Society, p. 215–218.

Stock, J.D., Cochran, S.A., Field, M.E, Jacobi, J.D., and Tribble, G., 2011, From ridge to reef—Linking erosion and changing watersheds to impacts on coral reef ecosystems in Hawaiʻi and the Pacific Ocean: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2011-3049, 4 p.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2009, Science-based strategies for sustaining coral ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3089, 4 p.

Storlazzi, C.D., Presto, M.K., Logan, J.B., and Field, M.E., 2008, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi; Part IV—Measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity, June-September 2006: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1295, 29 p.

Draut, A.E., Bothner, M.H., Reynolds, R.L., Buchan, O.C., Cochran, S.A., Casso, M.A., Baldwin, S.M., Goldstein, H., Xiao, J., Field, M.E., and Logan, J.B., 2007, Sedimentary properties of shallow marine cores collected in June and September 2006, Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 289.

Field, M.E., Berg, C.J., and Cochran, S.A., eds., 2007, Science and management in the Hanalei watershed; a trans-disciplinary approach: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2007-1219, 87 p.

Carr, R.S., Nipper, M., Field, M.W., and Biedenbach, J.M., 2006, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi, Part II—Studies of sediment toxicity. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1147, 63 p.

Draut, A.E., Field, M.E., Bothner, M.H., Logan, J.B., Casso, M.A., Baldwin, S.M., and Storlazzi, C.D., 2006, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi; Part II—Tracking recent fluvial sedimentation; Isotope stratigraphy obtained in Summer 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1125, 52 p.

Storlazzi, C.D., Presto, M.K., Logan, J.B., and Field, M.E., 2006, Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Hanalei Bay, Kauaʻi: Part I—Measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity: June – August, 2005. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1085, 35 p.

Rooney, J., Fletcher, C., Grossman, E., Engels, M., and Field, M., 2004, El Niño influence on Holocene reef accretion in Hawaiʻi: Pacific Science, v. 58, no. 2, p. 305-324, doi:10.1353/psc.2004.0022.

Climate change

Ferrario, F., Beck, M.W., Storlazzi, C.D., Micheli, F., Shepard, C.C., and Airoldi, L., 2014, The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation: Nature Communications, 5:3794, doi:10.1038/ncomms4794. [download PDF]

U.S. Geological Survey, 2009, Science-based strategies for sustaining coral ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3089, 4 p.

Jokiel, P.L., 2004, Temperature stress and coral bleaching, in Rosenberg, E., and Loya, Y., eds., Coral Health and Disease, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, p. 401–425.

Jokiel, P.L., and Brown, E.K., 2004, Global warming, regional trends and inshore environmental conditions influence coral bleaching in Hawaii: Global Change Biology, v. 10, no. 10, p. 1,627–1,641, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00836.x.

Field, M.E., Berg, C.J., and Cochran, S.A., 2007, Science and management in the Hanalei watershed; a trans-disciplinary approach: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1219, 87 p.

Future reefs

Ferrario, F., Beck, M.W., Storlazzi, C.D., Micheli, F., Shepard, C.C., and Airoldi, L., 2014, The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation: Nature Communications, 5:3794, doi:10.1038/ncomms4794. [download PDF]

U.S. Geological Survey, 2009, Science-based strategies for sustaining coral ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3089, 4 p.

Field, M.E., Berg, C.J., and Cochran, S.A., 2007, Science and management in the Hanalei watershed; a trans-disciplinary approach: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1219, 87 p.

Other selected works

View click-and-zoom panorama of Hanalei Bay (1.8Mb)

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